Michigan's History in Poetry
The Fur Trade of Michigan's Thumb
The Gun, Silver, and Blacksmiths and the Makers of Brandy and Rum
By Mark R. Putnam
This is very much a work in progress!
Ekandechiondius and Skenchioedontius
1600 - 1700
Les Pays Plats
1700 - 1760
The Flat Country
1760 - 1776
The Thumb of Michigan
1776 - 1837
Franciscus Creuxius drew the above map in 1660.
The location at mid-left was previously called Conchradum.
It was also known as Land's End and and contained Pagus Ekandechiondius.
Conchradum likewise included Pagus Skenchioetontius.
In the center of the Creuxius map was the Sweet-water Sea.
Francisus Creuxius called it Mare Dulce and Lacus Huronum.
Conchradum was an early Huron name for land extended . . . or land projected.
The eastern part of Conchradum contained Skenchioe.
Skenchioe was the homeland of the Fox People.
The Fox had another name too the people of the other or western shore . . . the Outagamie.
Conchradum was a valuable hunting ground of Native People.
Here beaver trapping was at its very best.
The control of this hunting ground was often hard-pressed.
On the Great Lakes, the 1600's was the dawn of written history.
At that time, woodland of Conchradum was held at a great premium.
It was the great beaver hunting ground where the magical fleece was found.
Conchradum was many years later known as Michigan's Thumb.
"Condechra" in Wyandotte means land while "ata" means end.
The Wyandotte word "Condechrata" means cape, peninsula, or land's end.
The name Conchradum had the same root as Ekandechiondius.
The prefix "Ek" means Where, "condechon" means land, and "iondius means jutted or projected.
Conchradum or Ekandechiondius was where the land was extended.
By the mid-1700's, a Native Detroit Indian clan was named Kandechiateeronnon.
They were connected with the Etioreendi who were the people of the river outlet.
The Etioreendi were likely also called the Etioheroius and the Ariatoronnon.
There much later named Sauk by the Chippewa and Ottawa.
The Sauk inhabited Pagus Etioreendi, the Land by the River's Mouth that was west the western border of the peninsula Pagus Ekandechiondius.
The Sauk were the people of the river mouth outlet.
The Sauk and Fox were displaced form Conchradum by the influence of the Five Nations or Iroquois.
Later the Ottawa and the Chippewa displaced the Iroquois.
This was the enchanted hunting ground where enchanted or magical fur was found.
This was the land of the "beautiful hunting chasse".
The best of fur was found in this place.
The high eastern shore of Land's End was the land of Skenchioe.
In Onondaga "uschentchios" means land that is flat.
The French would called Skenchioe . . . Le Pays Plat.
The English would called it the Flat Country.
Inland from south eastern shore of Lacus Huronium, lived the Native People the Gens Neutral.
In the avoidance of conflict and war, they were often very successful.
The Neutral Nation were the ancient brothers of the Five Nations or Iroquois.
In Conchradum hope and ambition for the future was destine to aspire.
The pelts of Land's End were always held with great joy.
Here was located the Native winter hunting camp and fire.
Conchradum contained a great river or "fluvius" with a very wide bay at its mouth.
The river was known as Fluvius Kariendiondi.
In Wyandotte the word "arenti-" means river's outlet or mouth.
The spectacular bay at the outlet of Fluvius Kariendiondi was called "Tekariendiondi".
"Tek" means "Where", "areenti" means river mouth, and "ondi" means it juts out".
Tekariendiondi was where the river poured out.
Lacus Huronium the Great Lake was "Karegondi".
Karegondi was the lake of the great river spout.
The Huron lived on the eastern shore of Lacus Huronium.
They were known to the Iroquois as the Ouatogie the people of the west.
Their choice hunting ground was Conchradum.
Here hunting and trapping of beaver was at its best.
Conchradum was the enchanted land of fur.
It was also land with the sparkling or glittering water.
As Fluvius Kariendiondi emptied into Tekariendiondi, and the current then went east and then south into Lacus Huronium.
Water that sparkled and glittered was another significant quality of Conchradum.
At the southern border of Conchradum was the Belle Chasse River the White River.
The rivers of Conchradum glittered.
It's great streams were the waters of light.
Here nearly every stream and its branches sparkled and rippled.
In Chippewa and Ottawa, "wasseia" means light.
In Onondaga "wazaoenji" also means to glitter or gleam.
Here water ran along with a glimmer.
The water reflected rays like beams from the sun, glowed, and radiated.
This was the land of the many a clear sparkling water stream.
The three rivers that emptied into Fluvius Kariendiondi were the Tittibawassee, Wakishegan, and Shiawassee.
These river names were later given by the Chippewa and Ottawa.
The root of Tittabawassee was "Tittiba", which means it turns or rolls from hence it arose.
"Wassee" means it is full with bright light.
The root of Shiawassee is "Shia", which means it is straight, correct, or right.
Wakishegan means simply it glitters or or glows.
Three great rivers emptied into the Fluvius Kariendiondi.
Turning in from the west came the Tittabawassee.
Flowing straight in and running north was the Shiawassee.
Bending in from the east rambled the Wakeshegan that was also known as the Mattawan.
They possessed water that ran clear and bright.
They were the waters of light.
As Fluvius Kariendiondi flowed into Lake Karegondi, the water progressed round Land's End and passed by White Rock.
Wasse-bik was the Chippewa and Ottawa word for White Rock.
The water then flowed through a grand channel or strait into Lake Otisketa or Kandekio.
This strait was called the Otisketa River.
Lake St. Clair is today's name for Lake Kandekio.
Another name for it was Otsiketa Lake or the Salt Lake.
The French once named it Kettle Lake or Lac Chaudiere.
In Wyandotte, Kettle Lake was Ganatchio.
Lake St. Claire was the lake shiny, clear, and fair.
Lake Kandekio was often full with geese, ducks, and swans.
Another river that emptied into Lake Kandekio was called the river of swans.
At its mouth, swans paddled and created small wakes.
South toward the Village ofTeuschagronde, the water breaks.
Here it forms a second great strait called Le' Detroit.
Teuschagronde means where there are many beaver dams athwart.
The French called the Village simply Le' Detroit.
Southward flowed the water into Lacus Erius the Cat Lake.
Then, eastward it followed through water that was shallow then deep.
Finally over thundering falls Niagara would the water sweep.
Then, down a great Gorge the water ran rapidly with little effort.
It then ran into Lacus Ontarius the beautiful lake.
Lake Ontario was also known as Lewis' Lake, which was a French king's name sake.
Michigan's Thumb, Conchradum, was valued ground.
At an early time, expensive fur were here to be commonly found.
Conchradum was part of Tiosharondion or Teuschagronde.
The streams of Teuschagronde were full of beaver dam and deadwood tree.
Beaver dam in Iroquoian tongues was the word"sahr".
Conchradum to the Iroquois was the land that was afar.
At the heart of Teuschagronde was the river known as Wakishegan.
It is was also called Mattawan and even later Washington.
Mattawan means magical fur.
Michigan's Thumb, Conchradum, was in French "le pays peles", which means the land of pelt or fur.
Ekandechiondius and Skenchioedontius
1600 to 1700
North of Lake Erie is shown the Cheveux Relevez the "Erect Hair" later the Ottawa.
The Gens de Petun, the Tobacco Nation, are shown to the east of Lake Erie.
North of Mer Duce or Lake Huron are the the Sault or Chippewa.
Northwest are the Puans or Winnebago Nation.
In what earlier was Conchradum to the lower left are the Assistagueronon or the Fire Nation.
The Isle de Kaoutotan was later the Isle of Manitowan,
Manitowan means Ile of the Spirit.
The Ile of Driftwood as the meaning of Kaoutotan.
These were lands that were full of benefit.
The written history of the this area of North American began about 1606.
In search of furs and in defiance of the French, the Dutch sail into the St. Lawrence River in1606.
In 1609, The Dutch went southward, and Henry Hudson discovered for the Dutch the North or Hudson River.
In 1610, the Dutchman Arnout Vogels traded at the outlet of Hudson River.
Arnout Vogels had two Frenchman with him who also traded.
Soon other Dutchmen followed.
Lambert Van Tweenhuysen and Adriaen Block located at the mouth of Hudson's river.
Here they traded from their ships with European goods during warm weather.
In a short time, a trading post was opened here by the Dutch West India Company:
However, it proved unprofitable, initially.
The Native People the Mohawk on the Hudson River object to Dutch abandonment of trade.
They then encouraged the Dutch to relocate up the Hudson River and build there a stockade.
In 1614, the Dutch built Fort Nassau on Castle Island on the upper Hudson River.
Today this area was just below what Albany, today.
The area was then a land of pine forests that were very beautiful.
The fort became the main location for fur trading, subsequently.
The forests were then pristine and bountiful.
Then in 1624, the Dutch built Fort Orange on the upper Hudson River.
Fort Orange was located opposite the mouth of a branch of the Hudson the Mohawk River.
For trading, Mohawk River was a gateway.
Mohawk River led to the interior forests that were bountiful in fur.
To the interior, the Mohawk River was the doorway.
The Mohawk River led westward to Oswego and Lake Ontario.
The Great Lakes waterway from there led to the Niagara River, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and eventually Tekariendiondi Bay.
By 1628 the Mohawk had defeated the Mohican and were dominate players in the Indian trade.
The Mohawk then became the middlemen to the Dutch for peltries of the highest grade.
To increase commerce, the Mohawk and the French in Canada made a pact of peace.
However, the French soon found that the Mohawk brought to the Dutch and the best of their furs or fleece.
To the Dutch, the Mohawk were the corre de bois or middlemen.
With the help of the Mohawk, trade was very profitable for the Dutch at Fort Orange.
For great many years, that would not change.
The fur trade by the Mohawk and their Dutch partners would eventually lead and reach to shores and rivers of Michigan.
The Dutch at Fort Orange soon asked the governor for a monopoly in the fur trade.
In bargaining for furs and otherwise, the Dutch in Fort Orange were very successful.
To the Dutch, the fur trade was extremely profitable.
Fort Orange was granted a license as the only place where peltries would trade.
After this occurred, many Dutch merchants became very wealthy.
The Dutch imported few of their trade goods.
They usually sewed, forged, and brewed most of what they would trade.
In producing their own merchandise goods, their cost was reduced, greatly.
Each spring, the Mohawk would bring to Fort Orange furs from the woods.
On the Hudson River, the Indian trade was the greatest source of money.
The income from furs shipped to Europe were the largest part then of the local economy.
The Indian Trade generated a large amount of income.
Through the system, furs passed between many a hand.
Peltries always were in great demand.
At Fort Orange, Mohawk furs were always welcome.
Types of furs included muskrat, martin, mink, raccoon, possum, fox, lynx, and bear.
But, most important was the fur of the beaver.
It seemed that the the Indian Trade for Fort Orange would never come to an end.
Each year, the hunting and trapping in the west would extend.
The Five Nations or Iroquois and Dutch People were allies.
In this alliance, marriages often took place.
Through marriage profits would maximize.
Many Dutch had an Iroquois relative or ancestor.
It was almost entirely the Iroquois, however, who would venture to the western frontier.
Marriage between the Dutch and Iroquois was not an unusual case.
In 1635, the French in Canada were in an excellent trading position.
The French began to trade with the Iroquois called the Onondaga;
"Standing Stone" was their name in translation.
However, their brothers the Mohawk did not want the French to trade with the Onondaga.
The Onondaga lived between Fort Orange and Niagara Falls that was then the frontier.
The Mohawk eventually ousted the French from this region with the aide of the many a Dutch weapons financier.
In the Mohawk and French conflict, however, the Dutch expressed to be neutral.
The war between the Iroquois and French became pivotal.
Eventually to the cause of the Iroquois the Dutch would side.
The Dutch indeed helped to turn the tide.
Beaver by the 1640s, in the Iroquois homeland were nearing extinction.
The Iroquois were pressed then to travel to the "land that was afar" had furs.
The Iroquois then planned to conquer the area of Lacus Huronium.
It became their goal to control the Land of the Huron and the western Canadian rivers.
This included the ancient Conchradum.
To control the trade, the Iroquois wanted to control the Ottawa River and the Land of the Huron.
In this end, the Iroquois were soon in rapid advance.
They gather excitedly round their war dance.
In defense, the French of Canada armed the Huron.
The Wyandotte or Huron lived on the eastern shore of Lacus Huronium.
The Huron War pitted the Iroquois and Dutchmen against the Huron and Frenchmen.
A great battle began over the land of the Huron.
At stake were the peltries, or, furs, the riches, of Conchradum that today is known as Michigan's Thumb.
In 1633 the French had provided the Huron with bakers, farmers, artisans, and blacksmiths.
Blacksmiths often were also gunsmiths.
To this region, both French and Dutch goods were drawn.
An order for goods of every type was called upon.
In 1642, the French built a fort at the north end of Lacus Huronium on St. Marie's River.
This was the refuge of the Algonquin hunter, trapper, and warrior.
It was also the homeland of the Chippewa and Ottawa.
On St. Marie's River, the Sault or Chippewa lived.
Here also their brothers, the Ottawa resided.
The blacksmith was in the end the most valued artisan.
They made and repaired the valuable axe, trap, and gun.
In 1642 the Huron War was at a peak on the south shores of Lake Huron.
The Dutch were supping the Iroquois with gun, powder, and shot.
The Huron People were also known the Wyandot.
Wyandot meant people of the peninsula or island.
Fabulous Hair was the meaning of the French name Huron.
In the end, the Iroquois drove the Huron from their native Lake Huron homeland.
The Huron went then west to La Bay in Wisconsin.
The Iroquois forced the Huron to the setting sun.
Sojourners then were the Iroquois of Land's End.
The Iroquois to Ekandechiondius then would ascend.
The Iroquois controlled Tiosahrondion where there were many beaver dams athwart.
In this land of beaver, they trapped furs that to the Dutch the would export.
A major area of trapping was the land round Mattawan and the land that in general was flat and jutted out.
The Iroquois and Dutch consortium now drew pelts from Old Conchradum.
Now the Iroquois had great clout.
In 1650, the Iroquois were telling stories of the land the Chippewa and Ottawa named Sankinan.
The Iroquois who made their way here harvested the enchanted fleece.
They were the Anie, Agnie, or Mohawk whom the Huron knew as the Annniehronnon.
The Iroquois known as the Onneiohronnon were the Cayuga;
The OnnontaŽronnon were the Onondaga;
The Sonnontouaheronnon were the Seneca;
The Onionenhronnon were the Oneida.
At this time there was a tribal migration.
The Iroquois caused a grand displacement.
Toward the setting sun, many Native People went.
The Iroquois then controlled the land about Lake Kandekio and southern Lake Ontario.
There was a major turning point in 1653.
The Chippewa defeated a large Iroquois party on Lake Superior.
This would be the farthest extent of the Iroquois into the northwest frontier.
Although defeated in the north, the Iroquois still held the area round Teuschegrande.
A new player then appeared in the trading of furs.
On Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, the Ottawa became France's middlemen.
Northwest of Teuschegonde, the Iroquois would not again invade.
There the Chippewa and Ottawa were the land owners.
The name Ottawa likely means the tradesmen.
In trading furs, Montreal relied heavily on the Ottawa.
The Dutch still employed the Iroquois whom the Algonquin's called the Nottawa.
The Iroquois continued to bring pelts to Fort Orange after the spring thaw to trade.
With their defeat on Lake Superior, the Five Nations quickly penned a truce.
When there was peace, trapping would increase.
Money and goods became more profuse.
After the Iroquois defeated the Huron, the Ottawa took the Huron's trade position or place.
The Ottawa maintained the trading pace.
The Ottawa brought valued pelts to Montreal in great spring fleets.
The Ottawa had great renown.
They were the tradesmen in every Algonquin town.
The Ottawa were capable in marketing feats.
The Iroquois each winter trapped the area round Mattawan River.
It was also called the North Nottawa River.
It was the place of the large enchanted beaver.
The best pelts still were here in Ekandechiodondius and Skenchiodontius.
So, good was the fur, it was called the magical fur.
Over these pelts everyone made a fuss.
This land was eminent in trapping and was the yet the most promising.
Michigan'sThumb of Michigan was the land of the beautiful chase.
To this spot were brought a variety of Dutch goods.
The Nottawa trapped the beaver dams and ponds within the pine and hemlock woods.
They loaded their dugouts each spring and headed to Albany in a speedy race.
In Albany, Sankinan fur was the prize.
It's high quality to everyone was forever a surprise.
Great was the river called Nottawa.
Great were the furs of Saginaw.
The best of the furs were the muskrat, mink, and beaver.
These were found along the Wakeshegan the great river that was shiny.
The grandest of hunting ground was the Wakeshegan or North Nottawa River.
Celebrated too were the giant beaver dams of the Tittabawassee.
On the Nottawa River in the winter, however, the Iroquois were sure to be found.
The woods were full with them all round.
The place of the beautiful hunt was the Belle Chasse River.
It was the home of the mink and beaver.
In 1653, the Iroquois went to Montreal again to ask for peace.
The best hunting was done when there was no war.
The leading negotiator, who was both Mohawk and Dutch, was Canaqueese.
He was also called Jan Smith.
He likely was a gunsmith or blacksmith.
When making the terms, Canaqueese was pushed by the Onondaga and Oneida.
Canaqueese had made it clear that of the Iroquois tribes the Mohawk were the utmost.
The Mohawk would make the terms to end the war.
Canaqueese gave a great boast:
"Frenchmen listen to the Mohawk over the Onondaga and their close kin the Oneida".
During the 1650's, Dutch trading by law was only held within the walls of Fort Orange.
It was opposite the mouth of Mohawk River.
By law, outside Fort Orange, trading of furs could not be arrange.
Dutch law prohibited the trading of goods in the interior.
The law prohibited forest runners or "bosch loppers".
At this time for the Dutch, the Iroquois were the middlemen.
Many Iroquois were also half-brothers of the Dutch traders.
The trading of furs ultimately was done only by aldermen.
They were citizens of Fort Orange and were often smiths and brewers.
Many never went into the far western countryside.
Fort Orange was the place where they would trade and reside.
On the Great Lakes, the Iroquois undertook fur the collection.
They would travel to the Western Lands including the Thumb of Michigan.
A Dutchman not infrequently took an Iroquois bride.
In that way, trading and family were allied.
The Iroquois middleman may have also have been a Dutchman's brother or brother-in -law.
It was the Iroquois however who might go to the forests of Saginaw.
Dutchmen acted as the middleman in the exchange of prisoners.
Dutch Captain, Otsi-rdiakhon went to Three Rivers with a Mohawk peace keeping team.
His goal was to buy back prisoners.
Because it allowed hunting and trapping, peace was beneficial for all.
With peace, hunting and trapping would commence each the fall.
In the spring, they would brought back pelts from the western river or stream.
With peace, furs made their way to the Dutch at Fort Orange on the Hudson River.
With peace, furs alsowere brought to the French on the Ottawa River.
Before long, there was war in Europe and an overturn in Dutch rule ensued.
In 1664, the Dutch and English were in a critical feud.
In North America, without firing a gun, a large English fleet took control of New Netherlands.
The colony then went into English hands.
New Netherlands was afterward called New York.
However, Dutch were still in charge of the fur trade at Fort Orange on the Hudson's River upper fork.
Fort Orange, however, was given a new name Albany.
Although it was then English, it still followed the local Dutch strategy.
Canada was known then as New France.
Both regions were deeply steeped in Indian Trade romance.
Each spring from the western woodlands, furs continued to be brought back by the Five Nations to Fort Orange now Albany.
Before 1664 in New York, the drinking of rum was rare.
After 1664, the consumption of rum in New York under the British was everywhere.
A part of the Triangular Trade, it was a British commodity.
In the Indian trade, the English used rum widely.
The English could make rum at half the cost the French made their brandy.
The Dutch of Albany, New York, also still made Indian trade goods at a very low cost and high quality.
English rum was a by product of West Indies sugar making.
It was made very cheaply.
After the English took control of New York, rum was very widely selling.
Dutch goods and English Rum greatly influenced the Indian Trade on every stream and lake.
Rum lifted and extended the trade to a new higher level or wake.
In New York, the trading of furs still was still only legally done at Albany.
However, illegal trade was done in other towns including Schenectady.
Many of those in Schenectady were close in kin to the Mohawk.
On occasion some Dutch went westward with their siblings who were Mohawk.
It possible that nameless Dutchmenmade their way to Lake Huron in the wars before 1653.
Trading furs was only officially done within the walls of Albany.
Trading was forbidden to those of Schenectady.
Schenectady people had an intimate understanding of the frontier woods.
They too were also experts at making trade goods.
Schenectady supply many interpreters.
Schenectady people also became French prisoners.
As a captive of the French, a person would learned the Chippewa and Ottawa language.
Because of western knowledge, past prisoners often formed a bridge that was vital.
They later became negotiators, guides, and interpreters.
They were at times illegal traders.
The people of Schenectady were very valuable.
They were often at the negotiating table.
The Dutchmen of Albany traded goods for the furs of Tiosahrondion.
The Iroquois who trapped, hunted or trapped the pelts Michigan.
Possibly, in the end, those that prospered the most were the Albany aldermen.
A valued person was one who operated the local tavern or Inn.
Western woods runners to the land afar for the Dutch were the "bosch loppers".
They were the young Iroquois who made their way to south eastern Michigan's and its many rivers.
New York was now under the control of Englishmen.
To the western woods, now, the English would send the Dutch, Scotts and Irishmen.
In the Huron and Iroquois War, the Dutch tried to be neutral.
To the Iroquois, however, the Dutch were vital.
The Dutch of Albany furnished the Iroquios with food, guns, and goods.
These the Iroquois also used for trade in the far away woods.
As 1664 began, a new period began of competition.
New Netherlands, now New York, was now owned by England.
At the same time, Canada was going through a consolidation.
France now was arming the Great Lakes Chippewa and Ottawa.
They had ambitions to control the shiny waters the rivers in Saginaw.
The Great Lakes fur trade was a great part of the economy.
Albanysupplied goods and arms to the Iroquois who traveled to Michigan's flat lands or Skenchioe.
The Indian fur trade included goods such as gee gaws, beads, and charms.
The Indian trade also included weapons or arms.
The Iroquois desired that the land of fur Michigan's Thumb should not be lost.
Here the trade was undertaken with dear cost.
At their Northern Michigan palisades the Ottawa, also, stored pelts,and in the spring took them Montreal.
The great camping site the Island of Mackinaw.
In Montreal, the Ottawa traded for blankets, beads, powder, and gun.
Also part of every request, or trade, was brandy.
To the French, selling brandy made buying furs cheaper when all was said and done.
Brandy would clinch many a trade very quickly.
The legacies of the Indian Trade were guns, brandy, and rum
Liquor or spirits made the trials of the forest numb.
Brandy or rum was often requested over calicos and ornaments.
The English and Frenchman nearly always supplied spirits at their eastern settlements.
The message that sounded, however from many a woodland drum,
That "French brandy was expensive while cheap was British rum.
You often could buy more liquor from the British for the same number of peltry packs.
Also cheap were the other goods such as the tomahawk of axe.
The English carried on the same policies as the Dutch who came before them, and they found supported in the Iroquois.
Iroquois knew the Dutch since they were girls or boys.
To the Mississippi River and to Mackinaw, English and Dutch goods found their way.
While the quality was high, the cost of Dutch and English goods were low.
Even the Ottawa and the renegade Frenchman found their way to Albany.
A bottom line profit on the English financial statement, now also would show.
The aldermen of Albany many of them who were Dutch acquired fortunes that they invested in land.
The fortunes they gained came from the Michigan Trade, and trapping it's rivers of gravel and sand.
In 1664, the occurrence of beaver dams near Albany now was very rare.
Furs from the west became a great part of the fur commodity share.
A great portion of the Indian trade in pelts came then from the Lower Great Lakes.
There were also occasions of waylaying that was not uncommon in the spring just after the winter season of snow flakes.
Trapping and trading would wax and wane between peace and war in the the Great Lake's domain.
The Nottawa Rivers produced a high quality harvest of pelts from its inner pine land hills and its outter wetland plain.
Indian Trade went on because its income was a large part of the economy.
The Indian was the driving force behind domestic and foreign policy.
Along the Southern Shore of Lake Huron, it would last two hundred years.
It effected both political and commercial careers.
Also in 1664, King Louis XIV of France sent settlers and a military force Canada.
Canada diligently fought the Iroquois.
Within 3 years, they subdued the raids into Canada by the Iroquois.
In 1667, the Iroquois sued for peace.
They wanted their loses and the pain that war brought to them to decease.
In 1666, the French in Canada had sent a milidtary force to New York to defeat the Iroquois.
Frenchman, Chippewa, and Ottawa advanced toward Albany the homeland of Iroquois.
Governor Nicols of New York, quickly, negotiated for peace.
As the truce was enforce, the fur trading in Albany was good.
The value of peace in Albany was widely understood.
Profits from the Indian Trade for Albany began to multiply or increase.
The English and Dutch traders, however, still felt that the French might be grasping more of the trade.
The French now were ventured into the western New York woodland glade.
Now, the Iroquois no longer controlled the Ottawa River route from the Great Lakes to Montreal.
To the Upper Great Lakes, French Canadians now had a clear passage.
For them this would bring in a Indian Trade golden age.
The Ottawa brought packs of furs that were valuable and stacked high and wide on the docks of Montreal.
Before 1670, the French did not venture to the Saginaw Bay shore.
France's holdings, then, were along the Upper Great Lakes.
With the opening of the Ottawa River, French profits began to sore.
For them, furs came from Minnesota, the land of the sky-blue streams and lakes.
To oppose the French in 1670, King Charles II of England Chartered the Hudson Bay Company.
It was located in Northern Ontario and competed with the French very successfully.
In 1673, the Iroquois began an invasion that caused the French to move to the north and west.
After the invasion, the Iroquois again controled Teuschegrande, now Ohio and Lower Michigan.
The Iroquois were now again given the the Algonquin a test.
The now trade divided between Montreal and Albany.
Many Native People again were being swayed by Albany's goods of low price and high quality.
The Dutch and now the English had an advantage.
They make excellence, cheaply priced, guns, spirits, and other goods.
With these, they dominated the Southern Great Lakes woods.
Dutch and English deals were the best was the adage.
Native People flocked to Albany.
They wanted the goods of low price and good quality.
Outside Albany, Native People lodged during the spring and summer season to sell furs.
Stories likely were told of the enchanted or magical furs.
Hunting and trapping was good in the Teuschagrande wood.
The Canadian fur trade strategy relied on Frenchmen called "coureurs de bois".
These Frenchmen "coursed" the "bush" in search of furs.
The Dutch and English however, officially, only used the Iroquois as "bosch loppers".
The Dutch also used many renegade coureurs de bois.
Canada complained about English competition in 1670.
The Iroquois were then encouraging the Ottawa to travel with their furs to Albany.
As the Ottawa began arriving in Albany, an imbalance in trade was created.
In 1673 in response, along western shore of Lake Ontario, the French constructed Fort Frontenac.
The French then stopped the Ottawa from going to Albany with dugouts burdened with many a fur pack.
With Fort Frontenac erected, the French position was strengthened.
The Algonquin trade with Albany was nearly stopped.
Canada's goal then was to control all the trade of western Lake Ontario and beyond.
This was done by maintaining and supporting Fort Frontenac.
Also, with Fort Frontenac maintained, the French stopped the Iroquois from going into Lake Erie and the Straits of Michillimackinac.
Fort Frontenac greatly effect travel to the enchanted land of fur and what is now Michigan.
The Chippewa and Ottawa then began to enter the region.
Fort Frontenac hindered the Iroquois from going to their winter trapping ground that for many years they had been bound.
This generated a great deal of Iroquois hostility.
It also created insecurity for the French and their Algonquin Allies.
The beautiful trapping ground of Michigan's Thumb had been a great Iroquois enterprise.
By the early 1670s, the Chippewa and Ottawa were moving into the the region the prime ground of eastern Michigan.
Occupation of this land went hand in hand with the work of the French Missionary.
In 1675,a French missionary came to the shores and rivers of Eastern Michigan.
The settlement of the French before that time had been in St. Ignace at the top of Lake Huron.
French missionaries also worked Le Bay, Wisconsin, at the top of Lake Michigan.
Until the War or 1648, Michigan's northeast Huron shore was occupied by the Wazhashkosag, the Muskrat Clan.
Here also were the Negawishininiwag or the Sand Shore Clan, the Otawag Zainagog, or Ottawa Rattle Snake Clan, the Kishkagogag or Short-tail Bear Clan, and, the Otawag or Ottawa who lived just above Saginaw Bay.
Southeastern Michigan had anciently been the home of the Pottawatomi and Sauk.
It was also the home of the Nassawakwatt or Fork Clan of the Ottawa.
These tribes the Iroquois had chased away.
In 1675, French Priest Father Marquette went to wakes and shores of Lake Michigan.
In 1675, Father Henry Nouvel came to western Lake Huron.
Sulpitian members Dollier and Galinee passed through the Le Detroit in the spring of 1671.
However, they plied the eastern shore of Lake Huron.
Father Henry Nouvel's journey would span three months in Saginaw.
Father Nouvel had been for four years the Superior of the St. Ignace Mission to the Ottawa.
In the winter of 1675-1676, the Amikoniniwag the Beaver People planned to hunt toward Lake Erie.
They were Chippewa.
The Beaver People desired to have with them a missionary.
Father Henry Nouvel that winter went with them to stay in Saginaw.
They began their journey in the Straits of Mackinaw.
Southward, then, two Frenchman, Father Nouvel, and the Beaver Clan headed to Saginaw.
After journeying south for ten days, they lodged with the Indians called the Oupenegous, likely the Partridge Clan.
The Oupenegous lived on the southern shore of Thunder Bay.
From that point, they started south again the next day.
Traveling along the shore, they saw large oaks, and maples.
The land was well timbered.
Along the shore, they also found apple trees from which apples they gathered.
At day twelve, their canoes rounded Point Au Sable, or Sand Point, where they entered a marsh.
It was hard to find a camping place here along the northern part of Saginaw Bay.
The following day, the was weather foggy as they canoed into Saginaw Bay.
The weather was very cold, windy, and harsh.
For six days, they were confined by ice, and there they had to stay.
Breaking the ice, they eventually made progress toward a small island that was known as Little] Charity Island.
The following day, December 1st, they entered Saginaw River when the ice was just breaking up.
As winter was fast approaching, they hastened onward during the brief warm-up.
That night they camped on the Saginaw River.
The following day, they recklessly made their way and mistakenly passed the mouth of the Tittabawassee River.
At this point, called Green Point, three large rivers meet.
The Rolling or Twisted Light River, the Straight Light River, and the Wakeshigan or Light River.
"Wasse" means to shine, glitter or be bright.
Straight ahead and up the Shiawassee River went the small fleet.
Realizing their mistake, they traced their steps back to where they had camped the previous night.
They had camped at Green Point or where the rivers diverged.
It was here that the Tittabawasse, Shiawassee, and Nottawa or Wakeshegan Rivers join to form the Saginaw River.
They turned west and paddled up the Tittabawasse River, the river that rolled westward, and onward their paddling surged.
They headed northwest up the Tittabawassee River to the with the Chippewa River.
Three days later, they arrived at the Chippewa Fork in the Tittabawassee River on the 4th of December.
Half way up the Chippewa River where the Beaver People previously had camped, they stopped.
There they would stay.
Here the woodland game had been allowed to increase over the years.
Here there were many colossal beaver weirs.
At the camp, were many furs from hunting.
They included bear, deer, and wild turkey.
There were also pike and bass from fishing.
To this site, the Chippewa had come about the year 1670.
The Fork was a very advantageous site to hunt elk, deer, bear, and raccoon that were prevalent.
Geese, ducks, and turkeys were also abundant.
Here there were also the "white man's" apple and large walnut trees.
Going up the Chippewa River, they arrive on the 7th of December at their camping place for the winter.
Here everyone gathered and recovered in strength.
Here, there were, Chippewa People waiting with great joy,
Man, woman, girl, and boy.
The camp was on the Chippewa River within the Chippewa winter hunting ground.
Father Nouvel within a short span of time constructed a chapel and cabin.
Father Neuvel did not confined himself to only this Chippewa mission.
He was also to other Native camps bound.
To the camp of the neighboring Nipissing, he went that was one day away.
On his journey to the Nipissing, Father Nouvel saw the destruction of much timber caused by beaver.
In the region, which was had not long been hunted, were many great lodges that beaver had erected.
He also went to the Missisaugua Camp that was several days journey away.
On Father Nouve's journey to the Mississagua, the weather was bitter.
It was the month of January, but Father Nouvel's dedication was extraordinary.
Father Nouvel stayed until March on the Chippewa River.
His cabin and chapel were made of arched bowers.
Within its walls he taught and preached for hours.
The cabin and chapel floors, walls, and vault were made of bark.
The door was made of animal skin.
There was even an opening for smoke in the roof in this his small ark.
The opening also allowed light shine in.
In 1679, Frontenac produced a chill for the English.
The year, New York required a pass of any Canadian trading in Albany.
This increased the money that came into the till for the English.
At the same time, the Dutch and English were going to Montreal and Quebec to sell their goods.
Even the French wanted the valued Dutch and English goods.
Since Canada was losing trade to Albany, La Salle of Canada made plans to stop furs from going to Abany.
La Salle wanted beaver hunting to be only under the control Canada.
La Salle then buildt a shipyard above the Falls of Niagara.
He was aided by Chippewa and Ottawa.
La Salle's built a ship christened the "Griffin" that quickly made its way toward Saginaw and Mackinaw.
The Griffin was the first sailing yacht that plied the Upper Great Lakes.
Leaving Niagara, it sailed through the Strait of Detroit, Lake Kandechioe, and then the open water of Lake Huron.
Great opportunities for the French lay in the vessel's gentle wakes.
The ship however was destined for disastrous weather.
Up the Strait of Detroit, it passed by the ancient Grand Village of the Iroquois . . . Tiosahrondion.
Up shallow Lake Kandechio it floated to Great Lake Huron.
Onward it skimmed passing Saguinan Bay and then onward to Thunder Bay.
In Lake Huron's northwest corner above the Mackinaw Island, the Griffin docked at St. Ignace to barter with the Chippewa and Ottawa.
It then went on to Le Bay, or Green Bay, were it collected many pelts during its short stay.
The Griffin full with packs of fur headed back to St. Ignace and the Straits of Mackinaw.
To order to build forts further west, LaSalle went by foot to the Miami orSt.Joseph River and then the Illinois River.
When the Griffin went on its way eastward, violent winds filled the weather.
Fear was instilled in each and every sailor.
The Griffin became lost in the storm as it returned along the waterway.
When La Salle hear of the event, he was in great dismay.
IN 1681, two years later, the Iroquois destroyed La Salle's Fort on the St. Joseph's River.
In 1680, the Iroquois had destroyed Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River.
Dispite the efforts of the French, the Iroquois still made their way to Saguinua.
With the Chippewa in southeastern Michigan, the Iroquois developed an equilibrium.
It was a divided kingdom.
In 1680, the Iroquois needed more hunting ground, so they made war with the Illinois.
They were in the end successful and returned with their canoes packed full.
Du Chesnau and Frontenac of Canada said that in this war the English were the instigators.
The English and Iroquois had a pack.
It was the English goal to force the Algonquin to the open English trading doors.
In their raids, the Iroquois came very near to Canada.
The Dutch, however, wanted peace with Canada.
The war for the French was a setback.
To a great extent, war prevented beaver trapping.
The Iroquois now had defeated the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania.
The Susquehanna to the west were then fleeing .
The Iroquois when they achieved this new conquest put the English to a political test.
The Iroquois said their enemies were hunting upon Iroquois land.
They also said that contrary to Indian Custom their enemies would seize beaver both male and female.
This did not allow the beaver population to replenish.
This was also the position of the English.
In 1681, Dutch traders asked the Albany Court to regulate the Indian Trade, the fur trade.
France was licensing traders for the interior and encouraging them to establish and man trading posts.
France was supported them with new military posts.
The Huron, Pottawatomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa could now trade at these locations.
To sell their peltries or furs, they now did not have to go all the way to Montreal.
These were the new Canadian regulations.
To sell their peltry or fur, Native People only had to go to a local trading post.
Canadian military posts helped to prevent waylaying by Iroquois.
In 1682, the Huron and Marquis Denonville went on a mission against the New York's Iroquois.
The maneuver was planned with much skill .
Their goal was to capture the Dutch and English Trading Post at New York's Irondequoit Bay.,
After Canadian Governor Frontenac, Governor La Barre came in power.
In New York, Thomas Dongan, an Irishman was the governor.
These two political changes would effect the Great Lakes and Michigan.
William Penn at this time was also founding Pennsylvania,
Penn then requested that the Iroquois sell lands to him on the Susquehanna.
The people of New York and Albany feared that William Penn would divert the fur trade.
New York's Governor Dongan was also requesting that the Iroquois not go to Canada to trade.
The Iroquois make peace with the far tribes at this time and allow them to go to Albany.
In 1683, New York's Governor Dongan told the French that no Englishman had every been to Michigan.
He indicated that no New Yorker had been beyond Seneca Country.
The French were more concerned about the number of furs that were going to Albany.
In the fur trade, the French wanted a larger share.
In 1684, the Iroquois informed French Governor La Barre that the Iroquois had guided Dutchmen to the Great Lakes Country.
The Great Lakes Native knew goods were obtained at Albany were better and cheaper.
To that place was laid a passageway from about the Saguinan Bay.
The Far Tribes then made peace with the Iroquois.
In 1684, the Dutch and English were obtaining a great quantity of fur.
The French were devising war against Iroquios, however.
In the land that was afar, New York Governor Dongan wanted to expel the Jesuits.
Dongan then planned to establish military forts connecting the Great Lakes with Albany.
In 1684, Governor La Barre of Canada went on an expedition against the Iroquois Nation.
The expedition failed and even more fur was being brought to the English.
That in the end partly full filled Dongan's wish.
In the spring of 1684, New York's Dongan gathered the Iroquois, the Five Nations, at Albany.
Dongan told them he wanted the Iroquois to oppose the French and their Indian allies in Saguinan including the Jesuits.
Dongan wanted to make Saguinan a permanant inclusion.
His goal also was to replace French missionaries and with English emissaries.
Dongan began by allowing merchants to give arms and ammunition to the Five Nations as presents with other accommodations.
The French advised Father de Lambertville, a missionary to the Onondagas, that the English wanted his demise.
In 1684, the Iroquois went to Saguinan on an expedition against the Chippewa, Huron, and Ottawa who lived near Mackinaw.
These later tibes trapped during the winter in Saginaw.
Governor Denville in Canada wrote that the English had more to do with the expedition than even the Iroquois.
The Iroquois campaign to Saginaw to the area about Michigan's Thumb allowed the Dutch and English to venture in a flotilla to the region the next year.
The Dutch and English planned that from the Chippewa and Ottawa they would also obtain furs.
In 1685, tdo the French in Canada, the Ottawa and Ojibwa sold two-thirds of their furs.
One-third of their peltries went to the English.
Controlling the trade in the Saguinan region was everyone's desire,hope, or wish.
With the Michigan expedition, New York land claims alsopushed further west along New York's western rivers.
Dongan's venture in the end would prove a plus.
New York would in the end gain and be more prosperous.
In 1685-86, the Dutch Johannes Roseboom party was at Saginaw and Mackinaw.
Denonville in Canada wrote that Dongan worked secretly to debauch the French and their Indian friends.
"Denonvile wrote that Dongan's pretension embraced the whole Great Lakes to the South Sea.
He added that on Lakes Ontario and Erie English canoes made their way his Ottawa friends.
He went on to note Mackinaw belongs to them, and New France has a great problem.
Johannes Rosenboom's trading party had acquired Frenchmen who were accustomed to and knew Saginaw's woods.
They were very familiar with the Saginaw trapping and hunting country.
The Indians Afar understood that the English had better bargains . . . cheaper goods.
Only French military might would stop the English from their great economic progress.
Only forts and military action would make French commerce again a success.
Denonville wanted the French to erect a good right fort at the Niagara Falls portage.
This would keep the English out and stop them from going to Mackinaw.
The most valued furs, at this time, came from Saginaw.
Holding Saginaw was a great advantage.
It was now the New York adage that the young men should be encourage to go beaver hunting as the French going hunting.
Acting in the forests as the French acted would bring them large amounts of wealth.
In the West, the English wanted to take the front stage particularly near and along Michigan's Thumb.
In 1685, Governor Dongan had issued a pass to the Rosenboom party who went trapping and trading among the Far Indians.
In the winter of 1685-1686, Johannes Rosenboom's party reached Mackinaw and was successful in trading with Ottawa Indians.
For the following winter of 1686-87, Dongan sent out two parties, but this time the French had been alerted.
The French were ready, and the two English parties were captured.
Under orders from Canadian Governor Denonville in June 1686, Frenchman Daniel Du Luth a Frenchman built Fort St. Joseph at the bottom of Lake Huron.
Daniel Du Luth had been a coureur des bois or French runner of the woods.
It was Du Luth's orders to stop the passage there of English rum and Dutch goods.
The Fort St. Joseph woods was full of tall pines trees.
The fort was made pickets made from the in trees.
The French with the fort stopped the foreign trade on Lake Huron.
Daniel Du Luth built Fort St. Joseph near the mouth of the Black River, which was also known as the Du Luth River.
It was not far from the outlet of Lake Huron.
In 1687, two hundred Frenchmen and five hundred Native People assembled there.
The English trade was now blocked in Michigan.
After being captured, 3 months later, Donganís parties were returned to the English.
An intense war began between the Iroquois and French.
The far trade would languish.
Governor Denonville of Canada built forts at Green Bay and on the Mississippi River.
Seeing these forts,the local Native People were impressed.
Denonville lso granted land to the Jesuits on Michigan's St.Joseph River.
The property was near Old Fort Miami, which the Iroquois had previously destroyed.
Two years, Daniel Du Luth was assigned to the Lake Huron military post.
This fort, Fort St. Joseph prevented the English from trading on the Great Lakes the most.
War once more had began over the control of the Great Lakes, and this time the French would win.
They would gain for an extended time the area's woodland fen.
When Thomas Dongan issued licenses for fur traders many hoped to become wealthy.
In 1686, Major Patrick Mc Gregory led a flow-up trading party.
That year Dongan had appointed McGreory as the Military Muster Master.
In the spring of 1687, McGregory had hoped to trade with the Chippewa and Ottawa at Mackinaw.
Young men mostly from Albany and Schenectady composed each expedition.
In the winter of 1686, both the Roosenboom and McGregory Parties went Oswego Bay.
The arrived in canoes, and here McGregory's party camped the winter.
The Rosenboom Party went on toward Michigan.
McGregory had learned the Native languages in hopes of gaining furs in their villages.
These young men of Schenectady and Albany were destined to be apart of history.
This the second excursion of record of New Yorker's in to Michigan.
With them, they carried calico, gee gaws, and rum.
The ventured to Saginaw and Mackinaw and likely camped on Michigan's Thumb.
The 1686 Charter of Albany gave the sole right to trade in the far woods to the City of Albany.
This for the city produced a monopoly.
Albany also would set to a great deal the Indian policy.
That was on paper.
The real possession of the Great Lakes would lie in military might and power.
In 1686, the McGregory Party wintered at Oswego Bay.
After the spring thaw,they went toward Lake Erie, Saginaw, and Thunder Bay.
Johannes Roseboom on his second journey was captured near Mackinaw.
The McGregory party a year later was captured on Lake Erie.
The McGregory Party to Mackinaw was full of Dutch progeny:
Those in the canoes were Nanning Harman and Johannes Bleecker, Jr., who were sons of Albany Aldermen.
Arnout Corneliuse Viele who was linked to Schenectady was included as an interpreter and skilled trader.
When at Michillimackinac, the French captured the Rosenboom party.
The French then took their captives to Montreal where Dongal eventually was able to free them all.
The Canadians who had helped the New York expedition were punished with execution.
The Schenectady Dutch brewing families were important in the Indian Trade.
These families included the Van Slyck, Viele, Van Eps, and Bradt families.
Very important also were gunsmiths such as the Fonda and Post families.
Brewing, gun working, and tanning were occupations that produced the most valued or aid.
Other important families included Scotts such as the Glen, and
The most important skills for an Indian agent was to be able to make or repair an axe, trap, or gun.
In the Indian Trade, the gunsmith and blacksmith were much wanted.
The occupation was very dear in the mid-western frontier.
It was necessary for an axe or trap to be forged.
That was how the region was won.
In 1688, the Iroquois complained to Governor Thomas Dongan.
"The French at Fort St. Joseph had blocked the route to Michigan."
Two years after the capture of the English expeditions, Du Luth was reassigned to the Northwest,
Baron de Lahontan was then appointed commandant of Fort St. Joseph.
The French had a new goal and planned to disband Fort St. Joseph.
They reselected a peice of property that would serve their interests the best.
The French of Canada now had their eyes southward to the Grand Indian Village known as Teuschegrande.
The French determined to settle there on the west shore of Le Detroit River.
In 1689, the a conflict that became worldwide intensified.
France and England between each other commenced a series of wars.
Frontenac returned to Canada
He favored the missionary corps.
Denonville was replaced and Fort St. Joseph on the Black River was abandoned.
This would impact the economy of the Michigan Peninsula.
Despite the progress of French in the woods the Iroquois were still trading with English goods.
They did this with the western tribes, however, in small amounts.
The French could not eliminate the English prices and discounts.
The Western tribes still liked the English or Dutch goods and their price.
They also fought comfort in French military advice.
The staples of the fur trade were beads, gee gaws, traps, axes, guns, and powder,
A vital commodity too was British rum and French brandy.
Calicos and blankets were also important and kept handy.
These were the general commodities of the French or English trader.
In 1689, the English paid two to four times as much for furs as did the French:
The French military however was very much more entrench.
In Canada, La Salle and Frontenac wanted to extend Canada's influence.
They favored the coureur de bois for a profitable westward advance.
The coueur de bois worked closely with Chippewa and Ottawa.
La Salle and Frontenac opposed the Jesuits who objected to the selling of brandy,
The Jesuits also scorned the life of the coureur de bois that was reckless and ruddy.
The Jesuits Missionaries wanted to confine the Indian Trade to Montreal.
Since there was little trade between 1689 and 1692, the Iroquois seems to be winning after all.
They defeated the French at La Chine in 1689,which lead to the abandonment of Fort Frontenac.
The French however would fastly hold the post at Mackinac.
The western tribes began to seek peace with the Iroquois, but other events shaped the outcome.
In 1689, the Rebellion of New York helped Montreal to gain an upper hand.
Internal events in New York over the years had not been calm.
Jacob Leisler, overthrew Nicholson, which came as a blessing to those of Schenectady.
However, Albany, and New York in general refused to recognize Leislerís authority.
Under Leisler's government, Albany continued to be armed.
The people of Schenectady, however, were isolated and little protected.
Schenectady was vulnerable to a French attack to their land.
During the winter of 1689 and1690, the Massacre of Schenectady by French and their Indian Allies occurred.
In February 1690, the French attacked and burned Schenectady.
In 1693, the Iroquois suffering losses.
They also were dismayed with the English and Dutch who would not help against the new French bosses.
Since New York would not aid them, the Iroquois, the Five Nations sued for peace.
In western Michigan on the St. Joseph River, the French built a new Fort St. Joseph that in the in the spring of 1694 the Iroquois attacked.
However, in 1693 and 1695, huge flotillas laden with furs made their way to Montreal.
For the French, these were the years of the great haul.
In 1694, Frontenac assigned Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac to the command of Mackinaw.
They foresaw control of the Upper Great Lakes that produced a monopoly in the fur trade for Montreal.
Cadillac began making a small fortune in the fur trade.
Soon plans for a fort at Le Detroit was laid.
The English, Dutch, and Iroquois wanted peace so that trade might again go on with the Western Tribes.
So, the Iroquois sued for peace.
The French stopped it though against the Iroquois complaints and diatribes.
In Albany, there was not much talked about trade with Michigan.
In 1692-1694, English trade with the Shawnee South of Lake Erie began.
The Nation of the South People, the Shawnee, then, lived in Ohio below Lake Erie.
In 1693, Arnout Viele's organized a trading party from Albany that went far into the Ohio Country.
The French were alarmed and the Indian Trade there eventually was stopped.
Arnold Viele was of Iroquois and Dutch ancestry.
He was connected with the Dutch in Schenectady and Albany.
He was very good in making a deal.
The two year expedition to the Shawnee went ant along the Ohio River valley.
As Frontenac returned to Canada, the morale and prestige of the French was restored across Canada very widely.
Frontenac was praised by the Chippewa and Ottawa.
The women in Albany for safety retired to New York City.
As late as 1700, the Indian trade for Albany and New York was wholly in decay.
The Iroquois, English, and Dutch would not be seen on Saginaw Bay.
The French Period
Le Pays Plat
1700 - 1760
The above 1704 Lahatan Map shows "Chasse des Castor des Amis de la Francois", which was inland from the Bay of Sakinaw.
The phrase means the "Hunting Place of Beavers for the Friends of French".
The remnant of Old Fort St. Joseph is near the lower part of the Lake Huron shore.
This was the best hunting ground for beaver.
They needed peace with the French.
That year, to Montreal both the Algonquin and Iroquois warriors brought 800 and 300 [packs] of furs, respectively,
In a war between the French and English, the Iroquois had pledge neutrality.
In the 1701 Iroquios Treaty, the French laid the foundation for the City of Detroit.
There Cadillac wanted to establish a French colony.
The Strait called Le Detroit was about one hundred miles by water below Sakinaw.
Cadillac could easily fortify the banks of Le Detroit.
July 24, 1701, Cadillac landed at Le Detroit and built Fort Pontchartrain.
The site was below the Flat Country or plain.
Nothing could be done by New York's Governor Dongan.
He could not stop the French from building their colony in Southeast Michigan.
However, the Iroquois complained to the French.
At the same time, the Iroquois raided settlements near Montreal.
The Iroquois contended to the French that the French and their Indian allies have taken Teuschegande the Iroquois hunting ground.
It was there that the bear, deer, and beaver abound."
The Iroquois were dismayed as it they had lost the lower shores of Lake Huron where they had in the winter had hunted and stayed.
The beautiful hunting was for them gone.
The Iroquois had for sixty years owned the beaver hunting ground.
The beaver and elk hunting ground, now the Huron live upon.
The Iroquois said that within a handful of years the Huron took possession of their land because of avarice.
The French insisted, however, that the Iroquois could still hunt their beaver ground.
That for the protection of the Iroquois, the French had built Fort Pontchartrain
The French also said that they would provide the Iroquois with powder and lead and things that needed for hunting.
TheFrench told theIroquois that the warring between them and the Ottawa would be stopped by Fort Pontchartrain.
When hearing this, the Huron likewise complained that the Mississauga, the Chippewa, had clench the Huron land, which they could not dismiss.
Cadillac responded in saying that at or near Fort Pontchartrain both Frenchmen and Indian could settle.
He said that all their goals would be attained.
For nine years, Cadillac commanded the fort.
During that time, the biggest resettlement of Native People would take place.
The Huron, Miami, Ottawa, and Chippewa would established villages along the river above and below the French post or base.
In 1705 with the departure of the Huron and Ottawa from St. Ignace Mission, to Detroit, the Jesuit Priests also moved to Detroit.
In 1702, the Huron requested that the French remove the Chippewa from Southeast Michigan.
The Wyandotte and Miami Indians also then informed the Iroquois that they were living near Detroit.
The Wyandotte and Miami said that they had their own devices and plans for the land.
The strategic point in Michigan was then Fort Pontchartrain.
Everyone wanted this the land as a homeland.
During the 1690s and early 1700s in New York, many bosch loppers or woods runners were brought before the the Albany Court.
In Albany there was still a demand and supply of furs.
There was, also, now a large amount of furs for the trader,
South of Tiosahrondion in the land of the Maumee,
Near the Bay of Sandusky.
Below Sandusky there was a place to portage to the Ohio River.
In 1701, the Iroquois gave a deed of land for the King of England thatincluded Ohio.
The deed was to Canagariarchio that meant where beaver is fine.
The land abutted the Twichtwich's or Maumee where great hunting was headline,
The Maumee lived southwest of Lake Erie.
Here beaver, elk, deer, and such beast kept.
This was where many of the Iroquois slept.
The Old Iroquois City of Teuchsagronde, or Tiosahrondion, was called "Wawyachtenok",
Passageway above this town lead to Lake Huron,
And, the sacred place to Native People called White Rock.
The narrow passageway,
L'Detroit was a fortuitous place in which to stay.
From Detroit and Fort Pontchartrain, one could go southwest through the land of the Maumee.
From there one would portage to the Wabash, Ohio, and Mississippi River.
Ohio was a fine area for the trapper.
But, the Thumb of Michigan, Sakinaw, was the where the hunting was the best.
To hold that land, Indian Country or the land of the Great River, was to L'Detroit Town,
Which was then held by the French Crown.
In 1686, Denonville had ordered Daniel Greysolon Du Luth
To build a picket fort called St. Joseph on the Otsi Keta, or St. Clair River.
Otsi Keta meant salty to the tooth.
The fort as built during a stormy winter.
Situated on the Black River on a hillside,
The palisade only for a short time was occupied,
In 1702, peace reopened the trading of furs.
Prominent men of Albany went to Montreal.
There they traded as foreigners.
The Christian Iroquois living at Caughnawaga near Montreal,
Would go to the west without hindrance.
But, near the end of 1702, war broke out in Europe between England and France.
Called Queen Anneís war,
A conflict between England and France had started,
But, the Caughnawaga came and went as before.
New York's Governor Hunter attempted to stop their passage--but it was not stopped.
After a small Canadian skirmish, trade went on with vigor.
Between Canadian and New Yorker.
Trade prospered during peace and neutrality,
During Queen Ann's War, neutrality was Albany's policy.
To a greater degree, it was also the policy of the Iroquois.
Peace with the French and western tribes was enjoyed by the Iroquois.
American policy was to maintain a balance,
At least on this side of the ocean with France.
There was peace as Cadillac, a Frenchman, built Fort Pontchartrain.
Which the local fur trade would sustain.
The palisade fort was strategically situated.
On the high river bank, 40 yards from the river it was located.
Fort Pontchartrain was 60 yards square.
Though primitive and open, it would forebear.
Cadillac, then, consolidated the Chippewa,
Pottawatomie, and Ottawa.
Who came to the Great City of Michigan.
Along with many a Frenchman.
Drawing Frenchmen to Fort Ponchartrain, Canada left open the opened the New York frontier,
Which was good for the people of New York and Albany.
Here they would carry on trade on every river.
As far as the Great City.
The Dutch were trading with both the Iroquois and Canada.
The bulk of Queen Anne's War fell on New England, which was desolated by Canada.
In 1703, Canada made a census of the warriors and their tribes,
That were about Detroit.
Along Lake Erie there were no tribes.
Three Hundred leagues from Montreal was Detroit.
At Detroit, the Huron there numbered 180 warriors.
With a coat of arms bear and black squirrel, the Ottawa there numbered 200 warriors,
The Pottawatomi had a village at Detroit of 180 warriors.
A golden carp and a frog they used as a coat of arms.
The Mississaugues lived in a small village at the entrance of Lake Huron with 60 warriors,
With a crane for a coat of arms.
The Ottawa of Saguinan were in number 80 warriors.
With a bear and black squirrel for a coat of arms, they set their fires.
During Queen Anne's War, New York was spared the cost of defense.
But, by 1709, the atmosphere was, however, tense.
The British government sent an expedition against Canada.
Against it was Albany, who wanted traded with Canada.
Against the expedition were New York's handlers or traders.
For the expedition, were New York farmers.
In 1711, after a failure of an expedition to Canada,
New England sent Hunter to the Iroquois to ask them to defend the frontier,
Which would start another attack on Canada.
In 1712, Secretary Clarke wrote the the country was averse to war,
Between the French and the Iroquois.
New York choose to sit still.
In 1713, there was peace, , again.
This increased the influence of the English and brought cash to their till.
In Albany, Robert Livingston, wanted New Yorker's to go into the frontier, again,
And, establish many a trading post.
That was the policy of New York that was foremost.
Robert Livingston was from Scotland.
He married into the Schuyler family of Albany,
And, had been the clerk of that city.
With the Albany aldermen, he had worked hand in hand.
Since 1675, Livingston had been the Secretary for Indian affairs.
He, also, knew much about Albany goods and wares.
The Livingston Plan was to have peace.
He also wanted to build trading posts or forts.
He wanted one at Detroit so that English influence would increase,
And, one among the Five nations as a halfway point of sorts.
He encouraged bush loping or going after the trade,
Into the woodland or forest glade.
Livingston wanted to place a fort in Onondaga country,
Which would attract the western tribes.
The Iroquois, however, opposed him, respectfully.
A western post may not allow them to exploit the western tribes,
The Iroquois wanted to remain as middlemen.
They gained the vote of the Albany aldermen.
Although cheap English goods and rum were irresistible;
The Iroquois attitude and French Forts kept the western tribes from going to Albany.
After Frontenac, Vaudreuil tried to abandon the western French posts,
He cancel licenses to trade and gave interests to missionaries.
In 1702, Lord Cornbury and the Albany Indian commissioners invited Detroiters come to Albany.
He found five Indians in 1702 at Albany who came from French post of Detroit.
He urged them to come again and to settle near Niagara or Albany.
Hunter, also, urged the Five Nations to allow Far Indians to come to Albany.
In 1707, Vaudreuil reported trade was significant especially from Detroit.
In 1711 , Lake Superior Indians were coming to Albany each year.
It seemed the English would soon be masters of all the upper great lakes.
To pursue this end, the English planned to establish trading posts
And, develop itinerant traders.
This was not traditional Albany style and was not adopted.
Albany was only getting a fraction of the western trade.
The Iroquois opposed plans that would displace them as middlemen
Neutrality, trade with Canada, trade at Albany were all parts.
After the war, trade both with the west and with Canada increased.
Primarily due to the cheap English trouds, which were coarse woolen blanket
They were staples of the Indian trade.
French government was compelled to to buy strouds in England for export to Canada,
the easiest way to get strouds was to buy at Albany.
no attempt was made in New York to prohibit this trade,
but Canadian policy varied.
Trade was carried on chiefly by Caughnawaga.
French secured goods necessary for the Indian trade,
Albany got a share of the western fur trade via Montreal.
Hunter wrote in 1720 that the value of this trade
was ten to twelve thousand pounds a year.
Two reasons assigned for the weakness of French influence.
One was the policy of restriction.
During the war, issuing licenses to trade had been abandoned,
The post at Mackinaw was given up,
Second, the sale of brandy was forbidden.
At the close of the war Michilimackinac was reŽstablished,
The licenses were partially restored,
In 1714 and again in 1717 laws were passed
to encourage the western tribes to come to Albany.
In June 1717, in a talk between Canada's Marquis de Vaudeuil and the Ottawa of Saguinau,
It was said that the Pottawatomi and Saguinau,
Left Detroit that year to go to trade at Orange or Albany.
The left with 17 boats. Six went to Montreal, and 11 returned to Detroit with De Tonty.
Shamgoueschi spoke to Vaudreuil in Montreal for the Ottawa from Saguinau.
And, said that matters had altered very much since the arrival to Detroit of Sabrevois.
In 1717, Canada permitted the sale of limited amounts of brandy.
In 1720, licenses and brandy were again discontinued,
But, they would in 1726 be restored.
The second French weakness in the west was the war with the Fox Indians,
Which broke out in 1712 and lasted until 1731.
This affected French in the far west.
They still held Detroit and Fort Frontenac,
through the efforts of Joncaire and other agents
were able to gain considerable influence among some of the Five nations,
notably the Seneca and the Onondaga.
As early as 1716 Joncaire had a trading house in the Seneca country,
Later, he relocated to Niagara.
In 1726 the trading house was turned into a fort.
Despite French influence in the lakes western tribes continued to go to Albany.
Where they were welcomed.
In 1719 the Albany commissioners made the significant statement
That goods could be obtained more cheaply at Albany
And, he French themselves had no goods but what they got at Albany.
In 1726, Indian commissioners were speaking of the coming of the Western tribes as a usual thing.
The western tribes came in increasing numbers to Albany,
There also were New York traders who would go out after trade.
In 1716, six traders got permission to open a trade at Irondequoit,
In 1720, Vaudreuil reported that the English had a post at Niagara for several years,
He gave that as a reason to build a French post there.
At Albany were two groups of traders.
One group traded with Canada.
The other group trade with the Five nations and the western tribes.
The Canadian trade gave the largest return.
With Fort Oswego and the law changes in the 1720s,
The fur trade moved west way from Schenectady and Albany.
In the 1720's, from Schenectady and Albany,
Many a batteaux,
Made its way to Fort Oswego,
To the river's dock or quay.
Furs from the west, Niagara, Detroit, and the Thumb of Michigan.
The outposts was manned by sons of many a wealthy Albany alderman.
In 1725, Indian Commissioners estimated the quantity of furs obtained from Canada
And, those obtained directly from the Indians.
Trade with Canada was then illegal.
Fifty-two canoes and nearly 100 people were engaged at Oswego,
They brought in 788 bundles of furs.
Forty-three canoes came from the western Indians
Who came to Orange bringing in 200 bundles.
One hundred and seventy-six bundles of beaver came in from Canada.
Trade with Canada was easy, profitable, and risk free,
Trade was done through Montreal.
Fur trade policy ignored the political factors.
When the French sold goods to the western tribes, they maintain influence among them.
When western tribes bought goods of New York traders or Albany,
The political influence of the English was increased.
English trade with Canada lessoned English influence
The Iroquois called attention to the fact that the French got their goods at Albany.
Governor Hunter was hostile to this trade and promised to stop it.
Burnet relied on the same advisers, and continued Hunterís policy.
Robert Livingston was an advocate of expansion.
Between Hunter and Burnet, Peter Schuyler as senior member of the council in charge of the province,
Robert Livingston suggested suspending trade with Canada for three months.
With hopes of building up the trade with the west by sending men to Niagara and Seneca country.
This was not approve by Peter Schuyler.
Livingston as speaker of the assembly put through an act forbidding trade with Canada
Albany traders did not want the enforcement of the act.
Despite the act that the trade between Albany and Canada did not stop.
Trade increased with the western tribes.
Prohibition of trade with Canada was half of Burnetís plan.
The other half was building a fort at Niagara as a center for trade
In 1721, Burnet sent out a party of traders to trade with the western tribes
This would counter the influence of Joncaire among the Seneca.
In 1725, a trading post was established at the mouth of the Oswego river
In 1727 a fort was built there.
There was opposition at Albany to the Fort Oswego.
The Iroquois also opposed it because it endangered them as middlemen,
The Iroquois also protested the sale of rum at Oswego.
Rum was sold to keep the trade.
There was a conflict between retailers and wholesalers, also.
Between New York and Albany, which profited with Canadian trade.
The small trader wanted direct trade with the west.
Small traders had increased in Albany since the peace of Utrecht.
They made trips yearly to Oswego to buy furs.
This method of trade became popular.
In 1726, most people wanted trade.
Profits from direct trade free was higher.
Trade with the French was also possible at Oswego.
Canadian the trade was a wholesale business.
The Indian trade was largely in the hands of the New York merchant,
In 1726, so strong was the opposition that an act
Prohibiting trade with Canada was repealed
In its place, a double duty on goods shipped to Canada was placed.
Prohibiting Canada trade had decreased the quantity of Indian goods New York exported.
Burnetís policy had political advantages,
Gained was the friendship of western tribes
And, diminution of French influence.
In 1727, many tribes were making Detroit their home,
Wyandotte, Miami, Fox, Ottawa, Sauk, Mississauga, and Potawatomii.
It's history would be written in many a story or poem,
By 1737, New York's Governor said that the Shawnee dwell at Detroit.
The Seneca and Cayuga had sold their land in Susquehanna from under their feet",
So, they had gone to Detroit.
Here was many a tribal seat.
Here they all come to meet.
In 1729 the New York assembly put equal duty on Indian goods that were shipped to Canada or Oswego.
With proceeds supporting the fort and garrison of Oswego.
Where Albany traders played but a small part.
Opponents of Burnet policy were London and New York merchants.
Who wanted free trade.
The English had economic advantages in displacing the French from the fur trade.
New York merchants were fond of the Canada Trade,
They sold large amounts of goods without trouble,
The French took the goods from their doors.
Whereas the Trade with the Indians was carried on with a great toil.
When the merchants of Montreal
Heard of the establishment of Oswego,
They persuaded the Canadian governor to set an expedition to raze the fort.
The governor abandoned the idea
Oswego extended English influence into the Great lakes.
In 1749, New York's trade was at five times what it had been before Burnet policy
Eight leagues above Lake St. Claire, was the entrance to Lake Huron,
Which is as large as Lake Erie.
Thirty leagues into Lake Huron, you find in a westerly direction the Saguinan,
Where there are settled some Ottawa amounting in number 60 men, fully,
They live on the island at the entrance to Saguinan Bay,
Where they have villages, cultivated fields, raise grain and for the most part stay.
When they are not at war with the other nations,
They raise crops on the mainland,
But they always till the land in both locations,
For fear that their supply of food may fail on the island.
Their land is very fertile,
And, game of all sorts is abundant, and fish the water fill.
The Saguinan nation
Is the most unruly and unmanageable in this whole region.
They have the same customs in every respect as the Ottawa.
On the other side of Lake Huron--that is to the north, is the Matchiache,
Which is settled by Missisauguas, who have the same customs as the Ottawa.
In June 1742, the Saguinan, Outaouacs, or Ottawa,
Gave a speech to the Governor of New France,
Marquis de Beauharnois.
Who knew of their circumstance.
The governor had sent Monsieur de Blainville to their village
That spring with a message
The dispatch was the Ottawa,
Of the Mackinaw and Saginaw,
Would find brandy at Montreal.
If they brought their furs to its hall,
And, not to the English.
The Saginaw Ottawa promised not to go to the English.
The Ottawa made their way to Montreal,
Braving the rapids and the danger.
They nearly perished in the cataracts of the Ottawa River.
And, one of their canoes was broken before reaching Montreal.
They assured Governor Beauharnois that they would do his will.
They would not go to the English, still.
They desired, however, a new canoe,
And, for when they broke gun and axe,
They wanted a blacksmith for their village, too.
With this item they hoped the governor would not be lax.
They had no one to mend each item.
But, were obliged discard them.
The Governor responded,
I am delighted that those of Saguinan have listed to Monsieur de Blainville.
I thank that to the English no more have you traveled,
And, that your young men have come to me your needs to fill.
A father is always glad to see his children,
And, his hands are open to them with present and token.
He went on saying, I thank you,
For braving danger to see me.
I will replace your broken canoe.
I am convinced that you speak with a sincere heart to me.
I will give you the blacksmith you ask who is Amoit of Missilimakinac.
That will be between us our pax.
Because of the good reports about you Achaouabeme,
I give a mark of distinction,
Which the King grants only to whose holds he,
In the greatest consideration.
May this induce thee to continue to devote attention to affairs that are right.
Smoke calmly on your mats, and drink peacefully, like true brothers, tonight.
Governor Beauharnois latter gave orders,
To the Sieur de Vercheres,
To send the second in command officer,
To spend the each winter
With the Ottawa in Saguinan Bay.
To prevent the Ottawa from trading with the English in any way.
During the 1744-1748 War, trade was interrupted,
But, after the war it resumed.
Trade at Oswego in 1749 was £21,406.
Trading at Oswego offset the influence of Joncaire
Among western Iroquois
Oswego was the only Barrier against the French to all the Provinces
Between New England and Georgia.
The establishment of Oswego
Lessened the importance of Albany.
The Indian trade was now at Oswego,
Traders went there from Albany.
Settlement up Mohawk towards the fort grew.
William Johnson was carrying on a good trade with Indians.
In 1745 some of the five nations told conrad weiser,
ďThe Indians . . . will on no occasion trust an Albany man,Ē
ďWe could see Albany Burned to the ground
or Every Soul taken away by the great King and the other people planted there.
When after thirty years of peace,
War again broke out between England and France,
Albany commissioners, still favored neutrality
Which had served Albany well during Queen Anneís war.
With peace the frontier be safe
And, trade with Canada would continue.
Governor Clinton wanted New York to be at war
Indian commissioners resigned
And, Clinton appointed William Johnson to command the Iroquois.
Which marked the end of Albany control of Indian affairs.
control of the fur trade and Indian relations
No longer was entrusted to a small group of Albany traders.
In 1755, with the appointment of Johnson as Indian superintendent
Albany ceased to exert any great influence, again.
In 1727, the New York Courts made trade free.
Palatines were settling on the upper Mohawk and along the Schoharie.
Scotch and Irish settlers, also, were settling on the frontier.
Which increased the fur trade trade into the interior.
Traders received goods in bulk at Albany
And, roads were made westward from Albany.
Schenectady was the best place of departure.
Its inhabitants had always traded, which was against the the law,
They were ready for the new conditions
They extended their journeys to the western parts New York, to Detroit, and to Mackinaw.
The Seneca had a large village was near Genesee River just twenty miles inland from the bay.
In the year 1749, one-hundred ninty-three Indian canoes brought to Oswego 1,385 packs of fur.
That generated a tremendous amount of money for the economy.
The early traders of Saginaw and elsehwhere siversmiths, were blacksmiths, gunsmiths.
Often they were armorers of fabricators of weapons or arms.
The trading of the Michigan's Saginaw was also wrapped in beads, geegaws, blankets, and charms.
As a group those that worked in Michigan's Thumb were adventuresome.
Before the English and the Dutch made their second incursion to Thumb and the Saginaw River the trading families here where the Campeau and Barthe.
They were Frenchmen.
Charles Andre Barthe was an early Mackinaw and Detroit aldermen.
Barthe was a gifted and fluent speaker of the local Native American language.
Barthe was a maker and dealer of weapons who traversed Saginaw Bay.
Barthe was an early Detroit maker of armor.
The trade also included work as a metal forger.
He was a welcomed visitor to the Saginaw and also Grand River Native village.
Charles Andre Barthe married Theresa Campeau who was a daughter of Detroit's Marie Roberts and Louis Campeau.
Barthe plied the water of Huron and Lake Michigan in a small Mackinaw sailing bark or pirogue.
The trapping of furs in the Thumb of Michigan was then still very much in vogue.
Louis Campeau's son Jacques Campeau likewise paddled and sailed these bodies of water.
Jacques Campeau was also a famous hunter.
He often made trips up the Saginaw River past the Crow Island.
His nephew Lewis would later take over his trade inland.
Where the Native people and trader often met was the at a the Great Camp.
It was a place of merriment and celebration.
It was the place of the Campeau trading post.
Here trade was carried on the most.
It was known as Gabeshiwin to the Native American.
It was the place of the winter lodge and camp.
Here were the Native Lodge or wigiwam.
The trading lodge or wigwam was the atawe-wigamig.
The trader was the atawe-winini.
Life was good here with little qualm.
The wigwam's were made of bark, limb, and twig.
This was part of the trading grounds of Charles Andre Barthe.
Pirogues were loaded with goods for barter and later with fleece.
This was where many wore the coat of fur or pelisse.
Then the trader on the Saginaw River and Bay was Charles Andre Barthe,
In 1747, Charles Barthe married Teresa Campeau the sister of Jacques Campeau.
The surname Barthe, or Barde, means to fit with a bard or make plate armour.
In Detroit, Barthe was commissioned to make iron axes.
His forge and iron shop was in Detroit where he quite skillfully repaired guns and made axes.
He was one of the most important people in the trading of fur.
This everyone around Fort Detroit would know.
In the Indian Trade, the families Campeau and Barthe were mentioned with much hurrah.
Like Charles Andre Barthe, the Campeau family as worked as toolmakers, trap makers, and smiths.
A large factor, however, to their control of the Indian Trade was the ability of the Campeau family to produce or acquire brandy.
Detroit's leading family, the Campeau's dealt widely in the manufacture of wine and owned a winery.
The French called the Thumb of Michigan Les Pays Plat.
The English when they arrived in 1761 continued this tradition and call the Thumb the Flat County.
The English Colonial Period
The Flat Country
1760 - 1776
The French and Indian War was over in 1761.
It was a war between France and Great Britain, and the English won.
In 1761, that the British became owners of Detroit and Mackinaw and Michigan.
They also control the Indian Country or Saginaw, and traders sent quickly from Albany.
The Campeau and Barthe families were linked for many years with the trade on the Saginaw River
The English would soon be found hunting, trapping, trading in the Saginaw area.
Dutch and English families would begin to take much of the trade away.
They would control the shallow Saginaw bay.
With the French surrender of Detroit, the French guard began to move westward.
A few however would stay in Michigan.
English traders had better goods, guns, and rum was the words that were spoken.
North of Detroit was the Flat County and its swamps and pineland.
From Detroit there were numerous trails that to the Mattawan and Saginaw Rivers went inland.
Going to the Saginaw River, the major trail was the SaginawTrail.
To Detroit came traders who had been employed with the Indian Department.
Many of the traders had been staying at Fort Niagara.
The most valued of the traders were those how were blacksmiths who would soon walk the woods of Saginaw.
This influx of people in Michigan would greatly increase settlement.
These English trader began to arrive in Michigan in 1761.
Here they would engaged in the Indian people often make silver goods and renovate the Northwest trade gun.
The British and Dutch were sellers of whisky and rum.
They made and distributed the Northwest trade gun.
After the French and Indian War, 1761, the the Englishmen whose families early on were Dutch came to Detroit.
One of the first to come was Isaac Gerrit Graveradt a gunsmith who had followed the Indian drum.
After the British and American's had won the French and Indian War, Isaac Graveradt settled in in Old Fort Detroit.
Another early trader in Detroit was Dutchman Jan Van Eps who was born in 1713.
Jan married Maria du Trieux in 1743.
Jan a noted fur trader was taken prisoner on Lake Erie in 1763 during Pontiac's War.
He escaped, however, and reached Detroit in safety.
In 1748, Jan Van Eps was in Oswego in a public capacity.
Jan Van Eps seems to have been involved in transporting fur packs to Albany.
In 1748, Jan Van Eps was an Oswego commissioner.
Jan's brother, James Van Eps was born in 1715.
In 1743, he married Catharina the daughter of Helmer Veeder.
At Oswego, Jacobus was as a licensed Indian trader from 1744 to 1745.
In 1759, Jan was trading with the Seneca at Irondequoit.
After 1760, the Van Eps likely traded at Fort Detroit.
There were two Dutch families who would permanently stay in Southeast Michigan and intermarry.
Earlier both had worked in New New York's Indian fur trade.
Isaac Gerrit Graveradt was a silversmith or engraver.
Harsen made traps and gewgaws.
Both likely also revamped the trade gun.
ing was his niche.
They worked with forge, flux, and pitch.
They were armorers who would make their way to the Flat Land stream and brook.
They manufactured goods to trade at the Native American nook.
Goods included bead, kettle, needle, and blanket.
All important was the Northwest trade musket.
These people possessed skills and trades that for their family were ancient.
They went west to Michigan weapons makers.
Jacobus Harsen and Isaac Graveradt the woods of the Flat Country would trod.
After 1761 and the end to the French and Indian War, these two and more came to Michigan to lend their skills and lore.
From the area about Fort Detroit,they ventured into the Thumb of Michigan.
They would have ventured onto the Mattawan River and it fleece of renown.
They would have visited the Ottawa Town.
In Sakinaw and other northern ground, they were also likely found.
Born in Albany in 1738, Jacobus Harsen was the son of Bernard and Catherine Pruyn Harsen.
In 1764, in Albany, Jacobus Harsen had married Alida Groesbeck.
While a young man, Jacobus learned the gunsmith trade in Albany, and in 1767 he was a resident of Albany.
He shortly thereafter removed to Michigan to fabricate and repaired the Indian Trade gun.
In 1778, Jacobus and Alida Harsen lived in Detroit next to Alida's father William Groesbeck.
Bernard Haresen was born in 1714, and in 1730, he was a blacksmith in the Seneca Country.
At the age of sixteen,he was a client of Sir William Johnson.
Bernard had been baptized at the Dutch Reformed Church in New York City and in 1737 married Catherine Pruyn of Albany.
About, this time he was a smith for the British Army.
To harry or war may be the meaning of the name Harsen.
Jacobus Harsen was a resident of Fort Niagara 1766, and just after the American Revolution he was in Detroit.
He was especially adroit.
The Latin word faber means ingenious or skillful and especially a work in hard metal an engineeer or forger.
The French term "lefebvre"means the fabricator.
A fabricator who were steep in myth and was often a toolmaker or blacksmith.
Tools, traps, kettles, geegaws, and guns were all made from iron, copper, and silver that would ultimately melt.
They were made to trade for the fur or pelt.
Michigan saw the use of the Northwest gun that was easily to repair.
Other items in the Indian Trade were tomahawks, gaudy bells ribbons, butcher knives, and gewgaws.
Following the Revolutionary War considerable trade was carried on with Indians.
From Schenectady several hundred boats went to Niagara
Some of the boats went to on to Detroit loaded with dry and wet goods.
Up until the American Revolution, the Barthe family would be very influential in Detroit.
They were the woodland fur trading proprietors of the Mattawan or Cass, Tittibawasee, Shiawasee, and Saginaw Rivers.
They also controlled Western Michigan's Flat and Grand Rivers.
In 1789, Barthe, Lefevre, and Bouropa or Bourassa were the traders who controlled the Indian Trade on Western Lake Huron and East Lake Michigan or the Trade of Michigan in general.
About 1788, an entry book at the store at Michillimackinac or Mackinaw shows that Mackinaw was still a storehouse for the fur trade.
In the stores there were one hundred thousand pounds of flour, fifty thousand pounds of pork, and one thousand gallons of brandy.
These commodities were held at the general store by a group of about thirty traders who included Jean-Baptiste Barthe, Lefevre, and Jean-Baptiste Bourassa.
The value of the store was five hundred thousand dollars.
Jean-Baptiste Barthe settled his accounts at Mackinaw.
The name Lefevre meant "the fabricator of gold, silver, copper, or iron ore . . .
The craftsman or simply the iron smith,
Just after the Revolutionary, Rev. William Andrews of Schenectady reported,
That his church was better attended during the winters than in the summers.
When the Mohawk River was open many men who were boatmen or Indian traders,
To Fort Detroit and even to Mackinaw proceeded.
Jacobus Harsen was pivital in the early fur trade of the Thumb of Michigan and Saginaw.
He would establish the first permanent white settlement,
Between Detroit and Fort Mackinaw.
In the Thumb Region, his purchase was the first transfer of land on a written document.
In 1778, at the mouth of the St. Clair River, Jacobus Harsen purchase a large Island,
Where he established an inn just off Michigan's mainland.
At his inn, he would many people house and feed.
The Island became known as Harsen's Island.
From the Chippewa Indian's, he had had purchased the land,
For the small price . . . a keg of whiskey and a string of bead.
Jacobus, also known as James, set up a distillery at his inn and trading post.
According to the custom of the time, here he sold goods of whose quality everyone would boast.
At his trading inn, stories of the Thumb of Michigan filled the time.
Jacobus Harsen was a skilled gun and blacksmith.
New of his establishment widely would chime.
Later, brothers William and Bernard, came to the island,
And, join the merry band.
Steep in history and myth.
To the Thumb of Michigan, they were the American vanguard.
In the Flat Lands, they were the ones which one need to deal with.
Trade goods they furnished.
Their jewelry and tableware were well burnished.
Harsen's Island was just below the Belle Chasse River,
Which was the river of the good hunt.
A pathway lead along it to the northwest and the Nottawa River.
The path followed the crest of the hills that led to the Saginaw Bay lakefront.
The Indian Trail divided on the Nottawa,
And, also went west to the camping ground of Saginaw.
On the way to Saginaw,
The trail passed the fur trading post called Shop-ti-qau-no.
This was the old home of the Nottawa, or Iroquois,
The Nottawa River emptied into the Saginaw River above the Island of the Crow.
Passed the Great Bend of the Nottawa River,
Below the old camping places of the Iroquois that were shadowed by tall pine timber.
Then went along the bank of the Upper Huron River to Saginaw and Crow Island.
The Upper Huron River was also called the Washington.
And, was the early home of the Indians called the Wakisos.
Jacobus Harsen forged many goods of trade,
Even traps he made.
John Harsen, Jacobus' son, married a daughter of Isaac Gerrit Graveraedt,
Likely even at times in Detroit a horse he would shod.
They control the forge,
During this time after the rule of King George.
Harsen's Log Inn would be destroyed by an explosion of a keg of gun powder.
The first White settlement in the Thumb of Michigan
Was the Tavern, Trading Post, and Inn of Jacobus Harzen,
Made from rough cut pine timber.
His Island settlement was really the first permanent settlement in the Flat Country.
The major part of the trade, now, was with American Whiskey.
The Ottawa and Chippewa would come to he Inn to trade along the great waterway.
They would stop here before going to Detroit from Saginaw Bay.
When it was built, trading place at Fort Gratiot.
Here tall dark woods were calm and quite.
It was located above Harsen's Island on the St. Claire River.
Both were stopping places between Detroit and the Saginaw River.
Another route to the Saginaw Bay was over the Saginaw Trail.
From Detroit to the Oak Lands, to Grand Treaverse, and Saginaw Bay, it would hail.
Near and outside of Fort Gratiot,
The trade was still done by Frenchman,
Who live the live of the Indian and their diet.
Here near the confluence of the Black and St. Clair Rivers with Lake Huron,
Trading, hunting, and trapping would go on.
A number of Frenchmen, to this spot were drawn.
The major figure was Anselm Pettit.
He was once a voyager who had worked with a French fur trade fleet.
The Black River was originally called the De Luth.
But, native people had always called it the Black River from its taninng color to tell the truth.
The name seems to set the mood,
The river and forest were dark.
Life was here somewhat primitive and crude.
Here often there were many a Native hut,
The woods were dark,
Olive green and uncut.
Probably, the greatest trader in these olive green.
Was the Dutchman by marriage, James Van Slycke Riley.
James was the son of ... Van Slyke and Philip Riley.
The Van Slycke family was descended from an Iroquois "princess or queen".
James Riley came soon after the Revolutionary War to Michigan.
He and his father like him had repaired many a Northwest Trade gun.
Philip Riley was an agent to the Cayuga in 1750.
He then worked repairing the trade gun.
Philip was then stationed a Fort Niagara and was a client of Sir William Johnson.
Both men were from Schenectady.
Sir William Johnson was the Commission of the Indian Department.
Philip may have worked within many a Chippewa tent.
James Van Slycke Riley married a Chippewa lady.
She perhaps was the daughter of Flint River Chief Meomi.
Her name was Mokisheenoqua.
She was a Chippewa from the place called Saginaw.
Perhaps, her name meant Good . . . . Lady.
She had three sons by James Riley.
The Riley sons or boys,
Understood each and every woodland noise.
The elk, beaver, bear, and moose, they would take with wise agility.
Such were the son of of James Van Sycke Riley.
Their names were Peter, James, and John.
They would be no one's pawn.
These men, the boys of the Menacumsequa,
Would in the forest trade with trinket and gun.
They were the most famous of bartering people of Michigan.
They left a legacy in Michigan'sThumb in the Lower Peninsula.
The languages Chippewa, Dutch, Iroquois, and English were part of their vocabulary.
They moved between Native People and Detroit bourgeoisie, freely.
The War of 1812
Because they wanted to protect their fur trade from the English,
In 1686, the French built Fort St. Joseph a the head of the St. Claire River.
Here Lake Huron meets with the river.
Fort St. Joseph was abandoned after 1688, without a skirmish.
Its garrison to Mackinaw was transferred.
It was one of the oldest settlements in Michigan, although often abandoned.
In 1790, permanent settlement was made near old Fort St. Joseph by Anselm Petit.
In 1807, a Chippewa Indian Reservation was platted on the south side of Black River.
In 1814, American soldiers built Fort Gratiot, here.
About 1819, Petit built the first house near Fort Gratiot, now called Port Huron on Court Street.
The town of Port Huron was organized in 1828.
Having in interest in the Fur trade of Le Pays Plat,
Anselm married Angelique Campeau,
She was the daugther of Simon Campeau and granddaughter of Louis Campeau.
Pettit knew well the land to the north, the timberland that was flat.
The fur trading Petit family,
Was related to the Saginaw trading families Campeau and Barthe.
Anselm Petit was a nephew of Andre Barthe,
Who in 1789 had a license to trade on the Saginaw and Grand Rivers.
They were both traders,
Who knew each other well, and probably together went after furs.
The Treaty of Saginaw 1819
Points of trade along Southeast Michigan's shore,
For the late Thumb fur trader,
Were Harsen's Island, Fort Gratiot, and Detroit, which many did explore.
A happy place to the trader
Was also White Rock, or Rogers Point,
And, above that was Traverse or Aux Barques Point.
There were major places to meet along Saginaw Bay southeast shore.
One was called Shebeon meaning where is hidden the ore.
The other place is called Bear River, Maquanicasse, or Quanicassee.
The French called the place in between these two Du Fill or Thread River.
The Algonquin called Thread River Sebewaing Sibee.
Perhaps, meaning Sugar River.
These were the place of major trade.
Also, the short bend on the Ottawa Rive was a camping ground.
Where many came to trade and a deal was made.
Here at Shop-ti-quano the trading horn or drum would sound.
Serving as a natural lighthouse White Rock,
Was a favorite spot of Native People, and a sugar house.
Waab-bik was the name of White Rock.
Anselm's son, Edward Petit here would build a trading house.
Edward started his stint in trade on the Saginaw Bay.
In 1828, there he would stay.
For a few years before,
He trade at the post on the creek called Shebeon,
Just off the Saginaw Bay shore.
The Upper Thumb trade Edward Pettit would own.
In 1813, during the war years between Great Britain and the United States,
Edward Pettit was born in his father's log-house.
He was the first child born into Angelique Campeau and Anselm Petit's house.
In the woods and neighborhood were the sounds of old hates.
The War of 1812 was going on,
And, When Edward was just months old, his family loyalty was put upon.
The Pettit family fled to Detroit where they until the war ended.
After the War of 1812, they returned home, and Anselm the building Fort Gratiot helped.
About 182, amissionary school at Fort Gratiot was opened.
Here Native People who to attended.
A Mr. Graveradt was the interpreter.
Jacobus Graveradt was likely his father.
The students numbered some 50 or 60.
After 3 years, the missionaries were removed to Mackinaw.
With the number of Native People following being about 30.
At the school, Edward Petit took his first and only lessons.
He had his eyes set on trading in the Saginaw.
In its woods he would see many dawns.
Aa a boy, Edward amused himself with hunting and fishing.
He learned from his Native friends their languages.
He, also, learned the French and English languages.
Along with his spirit, which was enterprising,
He was well educated to do the books for a fur company.
In boyhood, Edward was employed in the fur trade, quickly.
Trapping, hunting, and trading were part of his ancestry.
His life experiences were of that of the forest.
In 1828 at 15 years of age, Edward engaged in business at which he was the best.
With the American Fur Company.
To the woods, Edward took with him supplies of shot, powder, and blue broadcloth.
He also took with him calicos and a customary cup of broth.
Edward traded, skillfully,
For maple sugar and furs of beaver, mink, bear, martin, and otter.
He worked for Gordon and Ephraim Williams of the American Fur Company.
Edward became the clerk of the post on the Nottawa River.
At the Short Bend, or the place called Skop-ti-qua-nou.
The post met with a great deal of activity as we know.
The Indians of the Nottawa or Cass River,
Were numerous and intelligent.
Time trading was well spent on the that river.
The traders who came here had plenty to eat was often the comment.
They plenty to do looking them up the Native People.
Here candied maple sugar was a staple.
On one occasion, the traders had a problem, thought, looking up a local band.
Furs from the other encampments had been all bought.
So, everyone was looking for the Otawas Clan.
It was this group, too, that Edward Pettit sought.
The group consisted of 5 to 6 families.
They had gone all winter and had great quantities of fur or fleece.
Trader after trader went out and returned without fining them.
The head of the camp was Chief Otawas,
Was an old fellow and one of his sons had blue eyes.
Edward Petit resolved to obtain this winter, haul of furs, as his prize.
Edward started out with provisions on his back for a week looking for them.
No one could find Otawas.
With articles of barter, Edward headed for Shebeon Creek.
HIs guide was a Native man who had but one arm.
The Native man's people shot him because he killed his wife at Delude River.
But, left with his life so to speak.
He was left with no more harm.
In gratitude and servitude, he remained a trapper and hunter.
The two of them went off and hiking to Sebewaing.
They, then, followed around the bay and then the Tip of the Thumb,
They came down to the White Rock clearing.
Here they made a bark shanty and camped worrisome.
In the morning in a drenching rain, with nothing to cheer, and one a loaf of bread remaining,
They continued in their searching.
After a tramp of five miles, they were rewarded.
They found Otawas and his families preparing to make maple sugar.
They had many brass kettles of all sizes that the British gave to make sugar.
The site was not only a good site for sugar: it was a good site for fishing.
Edward and his friend were almost starving.
Otawas had only moose fat scraps.
Edward, however, added his only loaf.
For several days, they had bread and tallow scarps.
The maple sugar, they also boiled off.
Edward purchased from Chief Otawas 500 martin skins at $1 each.
When back to the post, he sold them for $2 each.
Only the finest of the furs did Pettit take away.
The others were in Detroit on another day.
The coarse ones Pettit left for the other traders,
Who would journey to Saginaw Bay.
Returning to camp, Edwards wages were quadrupled by his employers,.
Who were the William's Brothers.
WORK IN PROGRESS
In 1845, a few German people built an Indian Mission,
Near the mouth of the Shebeon Creek.
Here the Native People a good like would seek.
The Native chief here went by the appellation of Brilliant Rising Sun,
Which is to say Wasseias mokaan gisiss.
The Chief had brilliant red hair.
His tribe of 300 people saw the coming of the White settlement,
Which put many in despair.
After acquiring land in 1847, many of the Native People sold their entitlement.
In 1856, for a small amount of money their land they sold.
Thought a few remained it told.
These did not sell their land until much later,
"Green Parrot" and "Middle Lake" were, then, each a grantor,
Small pox and took a heavy toll within the tribe.
No remedyculd be prescribe.
The Huron, or Nottawa, River,
Was after 1819 called the Cass River.
It was the early home of the Wakishegan.
Their main camp was at Mattawan.
This was the home of the Chief Otusson.
Northwest of Otusson's Village was Sheboygan Creek whose current is slow.
Cheboygan meant the rice gathering place.
Cheboygan Creeks empties into the Saginaw River at the island called Crow.
The Chief at the latter place,
Was called Menitegow, which means island in the river.
This was where
The land on the west bank of the Saginaw River,
Opposite Crow Island,
Was called "Mtigong",
Meaning a place the the timber first come to the river.
The name Zilwaukee would later be giving to the wetland.
A woods is "mtig" and to be in front is "niigaan".
This is where the pine trees first show along the Saginaw River.
At the Short Bend in the Mattawan River,
The water would bubble and squeak,
And, along the south bank was Dead Creek.
Northwest of the Sheboyganing
Is the stream called Quanicassee.
It was also called "Maqua-na-ka-see.
The later seems to have been the original wording,
That described the creek.
It meant The Black Bear Creek.
It flows into the Saginaw Bay,
Running almost strait north over much of its way.
From Otusson's Village one can reach the shores of the bay in one day.
Further up the coast of the Saginaw Cove,
Is the stream called Wiscoggin Creek,
Whose name one may seek,
Means "The Beaver or Muskrat Lodge",
And, creek called Sebewaing, Du Fill, or Thread River is along the bay just above,
Its mouth empties straight into the Saginaw Bay with a dodge.
Above, Sebewaing is Shebeon Creek,
Both, may come from "zibii" meaning "river" or creek.
The Native word for netting or sack cloth is "assabiiwegin",
At signer of the Saginaw Treaty of 1819, the local chief seems to have been Sepewan,
This estimable person made shoes for the horse,
For covering ground the equine was the ultimate resource,
For overland traveling,
To where the Native People were camping.
The horse was the ultimate form of transportation,
Although usually going from one location to another location,
Was done by walking.
And, the heaviest of loads was transported in by voyaging.
The Latin word for to catch,
While the Latin word for a fish cage, trap, or net is "nassa".
In Chippewa a reed is called "assagaanshk".
Along the Northwest Thumb of Michigan,
On the Thread, Du Fil River, or Sebewaing River,
Trading at an early date had begun.
Another good place for trapping and trading was the river,
At the mouth of the Wiscogan Creek on Saginaw Bay, was a good place for trapping.
It was just below Fish Point.
The Old Indian sacred ground called White Point,
On Lake Huron's east shore, also, had many a small, fur trapping creek.
Trade, also, took place at the mouth of the Pigeon River . . .
And, Pinnebog, River.